ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act: Lessons from Odisha

Over the last 18 years, state governments ruled by different political parties across the political spectrum have attempted to expand the scope and vision of MGNREGA. But the case of Odisha stands out in the country in providing additional 200 days of work on and above the mandatory 100 days of work under MGNREGA and bearing the financial burden to pay the additional cost for MGNREGA workers on par with the wage for unskilled workers in the state. In this article, we analyse the implications of the Odisha government’s above decision on the income and employment opportunities for the most distressed communities in four districts and compare them with other districts of Odisha to suggest the need for such a progressive decision in other distressed districts in the country.

Impact Of Public Distribution System on Poverty in Odisha

The official statistics show that poverty in Odisha has reduced faster during the second period (2004-05 to 2011-12) compared to the first period (1993-94 to 2004-05). This paper attempts to study the impact of the public distribution system (PDS) on poverty reduction in Odisha during the 2nd period. The NSSO unit level data of the 61st (2004-05) and 68th (2011-12) rounds of consumer expenditure survey (CES) has been used for the estimation of poverty with and without income transfer through PDS. The PDS plays a vital role in poverty reduction in Odisha by raising the real income during the post-reform period, especially from 2004-05 to 2011-12.

Poverty Alleviation and Pro-poor Growth in Odisha

During the 2000s, Odisha recorded a faster reduction in the poverty ratio than ever before. This paper examines the pro-poorness of growth in Odisha and among its regions during this time. The pro-poor growth index, poverty equivalent growth, growth incidence curve, and poverty decomposition methods have been used to estimate pro-poor growth. The fast decline in inequality with the growth in household monthly per capita expenditure resulted in a faster reduction in poverty in Odisha. All the regions of rural Odisha and the coastal region of urban Odisha recorded a faster decline in poverty during the period of analysis and were more pro-poor during the 2000s. The panel regression result shows that the districts with high per capita income in the tertiary sector witnessed faster poverty reduction, whereas the primary and secondary sector PCI had no significant impact on poverty reduction in Odisha.

A Study on Functional Efficiency of Electronic National Agriculture Market in Selected Mandis of Odisha

Odisha is predominantly an agrarian economy. Around 50% of the state’s population fully or partially depends on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Any reforms in the existing agricultural marketing system could benefit the people to a greater extent. The current study is undertaken to analyse the impact of the Electronic National Agriculture Market on market arrival and price of the commodities in the selected Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees, and on the incomes of the farmers. It also highlights the difficulties by farmers to market their agricultural produce. Findings of the study show that e-NAM is still at a nascent stage in the state. The government needs to focus on infrastructural development, providing training to farmers, and research and development activities for better functioning and benefits of e-NAM.

Kalahandi’s Poverty and Dana Majhi

The course of historical injustice and feudal-led colonisation in Kalahandi remains uncorrected through a structural exclusion of the marginalised.

Why India Needs a Coal Mines Environment Authority

Given India’s continued dependence on coal to supply power for industrial and residential consumers at affordable prices, the country needs a unified coal mines environment authority staffed with multidisciplinary expertise to assess and minimise the adverse environmental impacts of coal mines with an integrated approach to ensure more efficient, effective, and transparent environmental governance. This authority must be created by enacting a sustainable coal mining bill before private sector commercial coal mines commence operations.

 

Writing Histories of Regions in Premodern India

The Making of Regions in Indian History: Society, State and Identity in Premodern Odisha by Bhairabi Prasad Sahu, Delhi: Primus Books, 2020; pp xvi + 274, 1,095.

 

District-level Estimates of Unemployment Rates in Odisha

This article describes the possibilities of using an alternative method, such as small area estimation, for generating district-level unemployment estimates with higher precision. The SAE method is applied to generate the unemployment rate of different districts of Odisha combining the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018–19 data of the National Sample Survey Office and the auxiliary variables from other secondary data sources.

 

​Notes from a Coal Site

A richly endowed natural landscape becomes the site of catastrophic exploitation, threatening the very community that it is home to.

Developmental Projects in Odisha

Resisting Dispossession: The Odisha Story by Ranjana Padhi and Nigamananda Sadangi, Delhi: Aakar Books, 2020; pp x + 311, 695.

 

A History of the Socially Excluded in Odisha

Tribals and Dalits in Orissa: Towards a Social History of Exclusion, c 1800–1950 by Biswamoy Pati, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2019; pp 248, 945.

Hirakud Dam and Plight of Its Oustees

Displacement for larger public interest has been a welcome phenomenon in a democratic and welfare state like India. Correspondingly, when it comes to restoration and adequate rehabilitation of the displaced, the state has to be proactive and provide a model of ethics and democracy. However, the past accounts and existing circumstances clearly suggest that there has been a severe abdication of this responsibility on the part of both the regional and central governments in considering the plight of the Hirakud dam oustees, particularly those who have not been properly rehabilitated yet.

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