ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

IndiaSubscribe to India

Pandemic, Protests, and Workers: India and Sri Lanka Considered

The climate of protest currently characterising India and Sri Lanka continues to receive staccato scholarly attention with barely any attempt to peak into either contemporary history or significant workers’ participation by way of explanation. Both regimes have pushed the pandemic as the proximate reason for the economic downturn in their countries even though the individual national trajectories have been vastly different. Our attempt is to evaluate the recent spate of public protests in both locations as continuities in public response to the larger injustices of policy that have characterised these contexts. While we do not do an explicit comparison, the presence of a few factors that offer some similarities in understanding the contemporary scenario in both locations have been mobilised in this effort. In doing so, we take a longer view of workers who have also been part of the protesting public but have rarely been acknowledged as such.

Shaping Indian Polity

The Hunger of the Republic: Our Present in Retrospect edited by Ashish Rajadhyaksha, New Delhi: Tulika Booksand West Heavens, Shanghai, 2021; pp 405, `200.

A Tale of Two Countries

Economic reforms produced different outcomes in China and India. This is because, despite the direction of reforms being very similar, the resultant policy regimes in the two countries were very different. China retained important roles for the public sector and the government, particularly in matters of planning and policy coordination, but India tended to leave everything to the market. Initial conditions, including health, education, and the structure of the economy were favourable for higher growth in China. In addition, certain policies of India made some essential inputs and services relatively expensive, affecting its competitiveness in a liberalised economy.

The Development of Scientific Disciplines in a Transnational Context

Disciplines and Movements: Conversations between India and the German-speaking World edited by Hans Harder and Dhruv Raina, Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan, 2022; pp 276, `1,115.

Financial Inclusion in India: Achieving Quantity, but Waiting for Quality

The government of India and the Reserve Bank of India have taken different initiatives to promote financial inclusion in India. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana is instrumental in universalising financial inclusion initiatives. It has resulted in the tremendous growth of several bank accounts. Only the quantitative parameter speaks volumes about unfair financial inclusion. It can be transformed into fair financial inclusion with qualitative characteristics. This paper aims to analyse financial inclusion from the perspective of the activeness of accounts under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) scheme, which is analysed with the help of Financial Inclusion Quotient (FIQ) and Account Activeness Quotient (AAQ).

The Indian Prisons and The Search for Equality: The Problems Faced by Transgender Inmates

The social stigma around the transgender community is changing and taking a turn for the better. But this change may be slower than expected if we take into consideration the discrimination the transgender community faces not just in a particular aspect but in all walks of life. They are denied education and employment opportunities, discriminated against in their homes, and looked down upon by society. Even more so, they are ridiculed and made fun of and act as a source of amusement which people get by humiliating such people. The authors, through this article, try to explore the discrimination and humiliation faced by transgender people in an Indian prison and emphasise upon the advisory given by the ministry of home affairs regarding the provision of separate housing cells for people belonging to these marginalised communities. The authors try to explore the societal gap which exists acting as an imminent factor in the unequal treatment and harassment of transgender inmates. The paper touches upon the various problems faced by transgender inmates in Indian Prisons and offers solutions which could help provide such inmates with a habitable and reputable environment to be detained in. The paper includes a descriptive analysis of the issue at hand with the solutions and the change in perspective that society needs to leave behind to prevent the stigmatisation of the transgender community.

In Pursuit of Uniform-ity: The Hijab Row

The issue of the Hijab Ban holds several layers underneath it. On the surface, it appears that it is solely the case of students asking for amendments in the rulebook of "uniforms". Another angle is that of Women's dress (uniform in this case) which solicits the attention and control of the community and society. Furthermore, considering the current socio-political climate in India, one is bound not to ignore the possibility of the Islamophobic facet to the case of the Hijab Ban. Thus, a question that arises is how to make sense of the Hijab Ban? Is it a case of “School uniform”, “Women’s clothing”, or “Callous Islamophobia”?

Impact Of Public Distribution System on Poverty in Odisha

The official statistics show that poverty in Odisha has reduced faster during the second period (2004-05 to 2011-12) compared to the first period (1993-94 to 2004-05). This paper attempts to study the impact of the public distribution system (PDS) on poverty reduction in Odisha during the 2nd period. The NSSO unit level data of the 61st (2004-05) and 68th (2011-12) rounds of consumer expenditure survey (CES) has been used for the estimation of poverty with and without income transfer through PDS. The PDS plays a vital role in poverty reduction in Odisha by raising the real income during the post-reform period, especially from 2004-05 to 2011-12.

How COVID-19 Deepened the Gender Fault Lines in India's Labour Markets

India has witnessed low levels of women’s labour force participation over the last four decades, with gaps of nearly 40 percentage points between the proportion of men and women in the labour force. Recent high-frequency data shows that COVID-19-induced lockdowns have had a disproportionate impact on women’s employment. Women bore the immediate impact of lockdowns, with 37.1% losing jobs (versus 27.7% men) in April 2020 and forming 73% of job losses in April 2021. Employment recovery has been slower for women. Prevailing sociocultural factors such as the increased burden of unpaid domestic work, gender digital divides, mobility restrictions, and the lack of institutional support at workplaces are discouraging women’s return to work. Even in January 2022, women’s labour force is 9.4% lower than January 2020 versus 1.6% for men. In this scenario, governments can support through gender-sensitive job-creation plans to expand women’s employment in the public and micro, small and medium enterprise sectors, and incentivise women’s entrepreneurship.

India has a Responsibility towards Myanmar Refugees in India

Since the military takeover of power in Myanmar at the beginning of last year, widespread violence, internal displacement, chaos, and human misery has set off a catastrophic refugee crisis in South Asia. As the military crackdown on protesting civilian shows no signs of abating, thousands of Myanmar citizens have left their homes without any hope of returning soon. Of those who fled Myanmar, many sought asylums in India. However, while India condemned the coup and the ongoing violence, it has shown scant regard to the protection of the rights of asylum-seekers. Even after a year since the coup, India refuses to accept those who crossed the border out of fear of persecution at the hands of the military as refugees. This article focuses on India’s obligations towards the refugees staying in the country. It argues that despite India being a non-signatory to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, India’s constitutional principles, refugee-related judicial pronouncements, and the various international conventions it has adopted obligate it to protect the refugees on its soil.

Greening Our Laws

The Coal Bearing Areas (Acquisition and Development) Act, 1957 provides minimal social and environmental safeguards, and deviates, in important ways, from India’s general land acquisition law. This article recommends updating land acquisition laws to bring coal under the general purview of the LARR. Sugandha

Pages

Back to Top