ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Change among India s Harijans

THIS book makes an attempt to understand and analyse the nature of change that has taken place among the Scheduled Castes of Maharashtra. Occupation, education, and sanskritisa- tion are taken as significant variables for analysing upward mobility. The chapter on religion deals with the degree and type of change that has occurred in the life-cycle ceremonies, rituals performed, and beliefs held. A historical account is given of the political movement of the Depressed Castes under the leadership of B R Ambedkar; and the motives leading to conversion to Buddhism and the issues raised by it are studied in detail. A hundred families from each of the three major castes Mahars, Mangs and Chambhars were sampled and interviewed. This material is combined with information collected from government reports and interviews with political leaders, teachers and professionals belonging to Scheduled Castes as well as the advanced castes. With the help of this material, the author gives a broad picture of the changes occurring in the subjective consciousness, and the objective situation, of the various scheduled caste groups in Maharashtra, One notable feature of the book is that it focuses attention on the fact that the various groups of scheduled castes show a differential degree of development and differential capacity to utilise the welfare schemes. The contrasts in these respects between the four castes, Mang, Chambhar, Dhor and Holar on the one hand, and the M'ahars on the other, have been clearly brought to light The Mahars with their militarist tradition, early westernisation, participation in the political movement, and rising aspirations, were in a much better position than the other castes to take advantage of the welfare schemes initiated by the government. The Brahmins had been able, with their tradition of learning and administrative work, to establish their superiority in the newsocial order in the nineteenth century in just the same manner. The Indian Constitution, through a policy of protective discrimination, tries to protect the Scheduled Castes against more widely spread though still small sample, including a few families from similarly situated non-scheduled castes, would have helped better to increase our understanding of the implications of protective discrimination. In the absence of a clear idea of the use of the survey method, the author has missed tins opportunity.

Welfare Programmes for Scheduled Castes-Content and Administration

Content and Administration S N Dubey Usha Mathur This paper discusses (1) the public policy provisions responsible for the creation of ameliorative programmes for the scheduled castes; and (2) the anomalies in the administrative structure responsible for the implementation of the pro- grammes, SCHEDULED castes are one of the most disadvantaged groups in Indian society. According to the 1961 census, the scheduled caste population is about 85 million, or approximately 15 per cent of the total Indian population. Out of the 65 million scheduled castes, 54 million or 90 per cent of the total live in rural areas; whereas 82 per cent of the total Indian population live in villages. In education, the situation of scheduled castes is worse than that of the population at large, although it is similar in general features and trends. About 90 per cent of the scheduled castes population cannot read or write. The corresponding percentage of illiteracy for the general population in India is 73. Further, more than 75 per cent of the population of scheduled castes is engaged in agriculture, while only 67 per cent of the general population is engaged in agricultural pursuits. The population of agricultural labourers is considerably higher among scheduled castes than in the general population. About 34.5 per cent of the active scheduled caste population work as agricultural labourers, while 16.7 per cent of the total active population in India constitutes agricultural labourers (Aries, 1971: 39-64).

The Reserved Constituency-Candidates and Consequences

Candidates and Consequences Satish Saberwal Proceeding from the premise that inequalities in contemporary India are far greater than defensible, this paper assesses the Reserved Constituency for the Scheduled Castes as a mechanism for abridging these inequalities. The argument is based on field data from a Punjabi industrial town and concerns political processes in the sixties.

Caste and Prejudice

August 29, 1970 heavy debt burden' (pp 35-38), It was also pointed out that, as a result of multipurpose projects which were heavily capital-intensive, some of the States are finding it very difficult to repay the loans, It leaves them with practically no money for other areas of development (p 37).

Toward a Jati Model for Indian Politics

Toward a 'Jati Model' for Indian Politics Harold A Gould The fact that development theories first emerged in the West led to what may he called a structural fallacy: that the details of modernisation as it occurred in the West are the functional requirements of modernisation everywhere. Recent research has begun to expose this fallacy in alt important domains of development theory. The broad structural features of the modernising process can be readily accommodated to, and indeed can be viably articulated through, a variety of indigenous, traditional social institutions.

Caste and the Indian Army

In Independent India, caste has been gaining influence in many fields of social activity. The part it has played in representative political institutions is now widely recognized. An attempt is made here to show how caste is extending its influence to the Indian Army organization.


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