ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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The Dragon vs the Elephant

China and India have one of the largest telecommunications equipment markets in the world. This paper employs the sectoral system of innovation framework for understanding the differential outcomes in innovation capability building in the industry achieved by China and India. The two countries have pursued widely diverging strategies for developing their domestic innovation capability. India followed a very rigid policy of indigenous development of domestic technologies by establishing a stand-alone public laboratory that developed state-of-the-art switching technologies. The public laboratory was not given any strategic direction, even though it was technologically speaking, very competent. Consequently, the country, despite possessing good quality human resources was unable to keep pace with changes in the technology frontier and the equipment industry has now become essentially dominated by affiliates of MNCs. China, on the contrary, first depended on MNCs for her technology needs in this area. But subsequently encouraged the emergence of three national champions, two of which are erstwhile public laboratories. The country has built up considerable hardware capability in both fixed line and mobile communications technology and has also emerged as a major player in world markets.

Fr Oswald Mathias: A Personal Tribute

A Personal Tribute SUNIL MANI Father Oswald Mathias, or Ossie as he was affectionately called is no more. He passed away, after a brief illness, on December 23, 2002. He served Loyola College, Madras as a professor of economics and as a warden of the college library with great distinction for over three decades. Needless to add Ossie belonged to that vanishing breed of extremely dedicated and conscientious teachers. These teachers did not have fancy degrees attached to their names, but their dedication, hard work and selfless devotion to their duty made up for everything that they did not have.

Industrial R and D

This paper attempts to demonstrate that while the developing countries are trying to pare down the role of their governments in economic matters, the developed countries are putting in place a number of support measures to help their private sectors to commit more resources to R and D. The efforts of the US and the OECD governments are examined to show how they are articulating proactive public innovation policies.

A Curmudgeon s Guide to Economic Reforms in India s Manufacturing Sector

India's Manufacturing Sector Sunil Mani in association with M Vijaya Bhaskar India has embarked on a path breaking reform of its industrial sector. The paper, based largely on official sources of data, undertakes a detailed analysis of five dimensions of the manufacturing sector: the growth performance of the sector, the degree of domestic competitiveness, foreign investments, and domestic technology development and finally reforms in public sector enterprises. The analysis shows the unstructured, ad hoc and sometimes contradictory nature of the reform process.

Economic Liberalisation and Kerala s Industrial Sector-An Assessment of Investment Opportunities

Kerala is one of the least industrially developed states of the union. There are essentially three main constraints or factors tfiat act against the ability of the state to attract in vestments, namely, the psychological fear created by militant trade unions, the shortage of land and of electric power. Alive to removing these constraints the government is implementing a number of infrastructural projects essentially to remove the latter two constraints. The response of private sector industry to these initiatives has been moderately satisfactory but the state still attracts only a minute fraction of the total investments in the country as a whole.

Economic Liberalisation and the Industrial Sector

the Industrial Sector Sunil Mani This paper assesses the experience of economic liberalisation with respect to the industrial sector. The focus is specifically on three components of the economic reform process: (a) policies affecting the structure of the manufacturing sector; (b) the policy on privatisation; and (c) the policy with respect to foreign investments.

New Industrial Policy-Barriers to Entry, Foreign Investment and Privatisation

Barriers to Entry, Foreign Investment and Privatisation Sunil Mani Analytically speaking, three dimensions of the New Industrial Policy merit attention.

Government Intervention in Commercial Crop Development-Indias Natural Rubber Industry

Development India's Natural Rubber Industry Sunil Mani This paper, analysing the experience of natural rubber in India, attempts to map out the nature, extent and effect of government intervention on two specific aspects of the crop's economy

External Liberalisation and Import-Dependence

A Note Sunil Mani This note examines whether the import-dependence of the industrial sector has increased in the post-liberalisation phase compared to the earlier period. The first section of the note considers the methodology of computing the import-dependence of the industrial sector, while the second section presents and interprets the empirical results.

Government Policy and Industrial Development-Case of Indian Computer Manufacturing Industry

Case of Indian Computer Manufacturing Industry B Bowonder Sunil Mani The Indian computer industry, though it accounts for only a small segment of the larger electronics industry, is one of the fastest growing within it. The industry is a heterogeneous one with the hardware segment accounting for nearly one-half of the aggregate sales turnover.

Biotechnology Research in India-Implication for Indian Public Sector Enterprises

Developments in biotechnology hold immense opportunities for public enterprises in India. However, currently most of these enterprises have not incorporated this into their corporate plans and there is every danger of the public sector missing the bus as far as this vital area is concerned.

Technology Acquisition and Development-Case of Telecom Switching Equipment

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the direct economic costs of technology import in one of the important components of the telecom equipment industry viz. the switching equipment industry It also analyses the efforts made by the state-owned ITI towards absorbing imported technology and developing local capabilities. The analysis shows that successive imports have been effected at a high cost and its subsequent assimilation has been extremely tardy with the result that technological dependence in the industry has been extremely high. Though the industry has one of the highest research intensities, much of the R and D effort has gone towards adaptation of the inappropriate technologies that have been imported. The country has moved across the technological frontier but this has been done without properly absorbing previously imported technologies. Development of local capabilities consistent with the usage pattern existing in the country has received serious attention only with the creation of C-DOT THE distinguishing feature of the telecom sector in India is that both the manufacturing of telecom equipment ax well as the distribution of telecom services have been entirely the monopoly of the state. The manufacturing sector is further sub-divided into switching, transmission and terminal equipment, The virtual monopoly of the state in all these areas has been eroded with the recent deregulation of certain segments of the manufacturing sector allowing private sector investments into these for the first time. The distribution sector too has undergone a major restructuring with the distribution of telecom services in the metropolitan cities of New Delhi and Bombay being vested under a separate corporation. Adnfinistratively too the creation of the Telecom Commission is another recent change.


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