ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Kalyan DuttSubscribe to Kalyan Dutt

Operation Barga Gains and Constraints

Kalyan Dutt While the agrarian policies of the left Front government in West Bengal have enabled the poorer sections of the rural population to become more conscious of thir rights, what is missing is a broader sense of direction. It is still not clear if these policies are intended to bring about a small peasant proprietor economy, or whether these aim at a mixed economy where the agricultural labourers and poor artisans will have communal ownership of hind, with the government extending support to small producers' cooperatives.

Co-operative Farming

appeal of the Non-Co-operation Move- mrni was accentuated by religious con- siderations which had come to be associated with the movement. But the religious question was relevant to a particular section of the participants. The majority of the participants were not concerned with it. Apparently Gandhi's idea of swaraj had appealed to the ordinary people who had found it relevant to their aspirations. Religions considerations did not constitute a factor of the Gandhian movement after the Non-Co-operation Movement was over. This may have been one of the reasons why a section of the participants had withdrawn from Gandhian mass movements. They may not have been convinced of the efficacy ofthe Gandhian idea of an alternative social system. But generally sneaking, the appeal of the Gandhian programme of mass movement and his idea of swaraj had increased phenomenally. between the Non-Co-operation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement 1930-34. A comparison between these two movements in terms of the areas covered, number of participants and the initiative of the common people will bear out this point The study of the N on-Co-operation Movement therefore should have focused on the relevance of the Gandhian programmes and ideas for the condition in which the ordinary people of India were in and the process of mass mobilisation on the basis of these programmes. But instead of doing this the author has concentrated on the general political circumstances in which the Non-Co-operation Movement was launched and the immediate political consequences that followed from it. In other words, it is another account of political bargaining which may have been a part of the nationalist movements in India all through but certainly does not represent the spirit that had inspired the people to fight for their rights and the historical developments through which the freedom struggle of the people had progressed between

Changes in Land Relations in West Bengal

Kalyan Dutt Notwithstanding the ever-increasing stringency of measures to enforce the ceiling on landownership and to secure the protection of bargadars' right to cultivate, the rural economy of West Bengal has turned out to he completely different from what the legislators had envisaged. Despite a decrease in the extent of lawlessness, the weight age of small owner-operators operating the bottom 20 per cent of land has decreased from 69 per cent to 57 per cent between 1954-55 and 1971-72; while that of the large owner-operators operating the top 20 per cent of area has increased from 4 per cent to 6 per cent.

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