ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Towards a Demographic Transition

The demographic debate in India now mostly centres on the causes of rapid fertility transition in the context of poor economic and social development. This paper looks at the experience in Andhra Pradesh. It tries to capture the progress of different demographic indicators in the state during the last quarter of a century and the socio-economic factors associated with the demographic phenomena.

Gender Differentials in Adult Mortality

Even as the debate continues on the magnitudes of female foeticide and infanticide, it is necessary to note that the marginal improvements in the sex ratio recorded towards the end of the last century are the outcome of a narrowing gap in gender differentials in adult mortality. This paper looks at the trends and variations in this gap.

Causes of Fertility Decline in India and Bangladesh

Conventional approaches to studies on fertility decline have long assumed the primacy of the household as the prime decision-maker. Aspects of the household such as its economic standard of living, social standing, exposure to mass media, work status were some of the influential factors at work on a couple's decision on their number of children. However, individual and household level factors have been unable in several instances to explain the full course of fertility transition seen in some Indian states and Bangladesh, where in some regions fertility transition cuts across socio-economic and cultural boundaries.Gaps in understanding such trends have been as this paper suggests due to the conventional emphasis on household level variables. It argues instead for the need to look at the influence the community plays in south Asia and to understand the levels of interaction that exist at household level and at the community level.

Fertility Decline in Andhra Pradesh

The southern states in India, on the whole, are undergoing a fertility transition. Of these Kerala and Tamil Nadu have already attained a replacement level fertility. The dramatic fertility decline in Andhra Pradesh shows that the state will follow the other two soon. This paper attempts to depict the fertility decline in that state and to consider plausible explanations.

Demographic Transition and Education in Kerala

compensation has been reduced. The delays in, and unfavourable consequences of appeals carry an ominous and coercive message to the claimants accept whatever is being decided or face a lingering and unfavourable consequence.

Indian Elderly Asset or Liability

Since our country is anticipating a further breakthrough in fertility and mortality front, the proportion of elderly is likely to go up in the coming years and so will the problems related to it. We need to evolve programmes to deal with these emerging 'grey' problems.

Kerala s Health Status Some Issues

Kerala's Health Status: Some Issues S Irudaya Rajan K S James TAKE away the advances Kerala made in the demographic arena the state may become an addition to the list of HIMARU1 states in India. This is because, Kerala has made enviable progress and is being projected as a striking example for its quick demographic transition without adequate economic backing. Predominantly, in the areas of life expectancy and infant mortality, its achievements are commendable. Kerala has attained a life expectancy of 68 years for males and 73 for females in recent times as against India's figure of 56 for males and 56.5 for females [Mari Dhat and Irudaya Rajan 1990], It has an infant mortality rate of less than one-fourth of India, which stands at 17 per 1,000 live births as of 1991. Various surveys conducted in recent times indicate the faster decline in neonatal mortality (one- month mortality) compared to post-neonatal mortality [Irudaya Rajan and Navaneetham 1993a; National Family Health Survey2 1993]. Moreover, Kerala's fertility transition has always been attributed to its very high literacy rate, especially among women and improved mortality sta- tus [Mari Bhat and Irudaya Rajan 1990].


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