ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Alternatives in Energy Development

The energy crisis has resulted from the prodigal use of fossil fuels. Utilisation of renewable resources

Hesitant Approach to Science and Technology

functions as Parliament may by law confer on them.
Article 281 The President shall cause every recommendation made by the Finance Commission under the provisions of this Constitution together with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken thereon to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Anomalies in Drug Prices and Quality Control

Anomalies in Drug Prices and Quality Control P S Agarwal P K Ramachandran B V Rangarao Drug price indices in the developed countries have been falling when static groups of drugs are considered, though for the industry as a whole the price indices have risen due to the discovery and introduction of new drugs. In India, however, the drug price index calculated on the basis of the prices of a static group of drugs had risen by 41.9 points by 1970-71 with 1961-62 as the base. The rise was sharp after 1965-66 which, by a remarkable coincidence, was also the period when the Government of India referred the costs and prices of a few selected drugs to the Tariff Commission for study. The highest annual increase of 12 points occurred in 1970-71 with the announcement of the Drug Prices Control Order.

The Pharmaceutical Industry in India

Though there are a large number of units in the Indian pharmaceutical industry, the core of the industry is dominated by multinational firms operating as Indian subsidiaries and by firms with foreign financial or technical participation. These firms greatly depend on imported technology and imported raw materials for production.

Defence A Socio-Economic Problem

of 'productive' activity. If the rates for organised trade or industry are jacked up to say 30 per cent because some sectors therein earn as high as 100 per cent return, the activities will still remain profitable and thus continue while others, though 'productive', may have to shut down. It is doubtful if selective increase for a particular branch of a given sector, e g, textiles within 'Industry', can get over this problem. It is just possible that if interest cost goes up beyond a point, textile mills will step up the production of superfine cloth in preference to the coarse variety because the rate of return on the latter is no longer remunerative. To expect that the rate structure can be adjusted so neatly as to leave certain lines of production within each sub-sector unaffected, while effectively netting the surpluses from others is to place too heavy a reliance on the manoeuvrability and efficacy of monetary instruments. These objections would apply a fortiori to a hike in lending rates of the magnitude suggested by Boswel.4 There may be room for pushing up the interest structure generally but a decision in that regard should be based on considerations of the major aims of monetary policy, and market trends as well as profit maximisation of the banks and not the narrow requirements of a specific subsidy.

Cost-Benefit of an Enquiry

Cost-Benefit of an Enquiry B V Rangarao Report of Committee of Enquiry, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 1971.
THE last five years of the council of Scientific and Industrial Research have been a dark period of suspicions, allegations, counter-allegations and enquiries resulting in a general crisis and desperation among scientists in this country. The CSIR is a major scientific and technological research organisation associated with several research centres through the grants and fellowships that are awarded and certain national responsibilities it has. Besides, scientists and technologists from other research organisations and industries participate amply in its policy formulation and decision- making machinery. This organisation has been a symbol of the state of science in this country.

China s Science Policy

China's Science Policy B V Rangarao Education, practical training and field work in science are carried out simultaneously in China. Before the Cultural Revolution it was estimated that the doubling period for Chinese scientists was less than 4 years as compared with 15 years in Western advanced countries and 7 years in USSR.

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