ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Quantitative Estimates of Primitive Accumulation and Its Sources

and Its Sources Sutapa Bose Ashok Rudra While many economic historians and historical statisticians have engaged themselves in the difficult task of figuring out the levels of income, rates of growth, volumes and rates of capital formation, etc, estimates of either the volume of savings or the rates of savings have never been attempted. This article presents the results of an attempt to make estimates of savings and capital formation which went along with the process of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.

Privatisation and Deregulation

Privatisation and Deregulation Ashok Rudra T N SRINIVASAN is surprised that I should dispute that "economic analysis has much to say on what activities should be in the public sector" and then he goes on to give a long discourse on how neo-classical welfare economics "makes a case for public intervention" under certain situations. All through his arti- cle he talks about public intervention, nowhere a word about public ownership of the means of production. So, it is my turn to be surprised. Surely, the two are not the same. If one treats the two as if they are the same, one is making an assumption that public intervention can make private enterprises behave as if they were publicly owned. This assumption is explicit in the following proposition of Srinivasan, "the state has the option of taxing the profits of a private sector enterprise and investing the revenues if it was the case that such profits, if left untaxed, would not be used for socially desirable purposes" Srinivasan can write this as he works in a neo-classical framework which contains no theory of the slate. Neo-classical theorisation about public intervention is based on the assumption that the state is exogenous to the economic system. That assumption goes against all lessons of history of any country in any period. By contrast, Marxian political economy gives due importance to the problematic of the way the state functions in any given society I do not, however, expect Srinivasan to communicate with me on the plane of Marxian political economy, just as Srinivasan. I am sure, would not expect me to communicate with him on the plane of neoclassical welfare economics. Despite this difference in our paradigms, we should be able to agree on historical evidence. Can Srinivasan cite any instance of any state acting contrary to the long-term, objective interests of the principal property-owning classes of a society, whether landlords or capitalists? It is of course a gross simplification to suggest that in a class-divided society the state acts as representative of the principal property-owning class or classes: the relation between the state and the different classes is highly complex. We need not go into those complexities now. We would only emphasise that the nature of public intervention cannot be independent of the nature of ownership of the means of production. The Marxian Theory of the state is as important for the social sciences as the Heisenberg Principle is for modem physics, inasmuch as they bear upon the mutual dependence of the experimenter and the experiment, the intervening agency and the intervention.

Privatisation and Deregulation

(if it it accessary to dissect frogs, do so, and stop it only when unnecessary) is dangerous. If, because of advances in biotechnology, naturally growing plants become 'unnecessary', there go the forests, If, because machinery and computers can do the job now, labourers become 'unnecessary', then, well, let them rot on the streets. Perhaps Vimal Balasubrahmanyan is familiar with the concept of 'triage', where the world's elite are increasingly thinking of the poor as dispensable (unnecessary), Scientifically they may be correct

Budget Bluffs

Budget Bluffs Ashok Rudra While in economic matters our finance minister and his advisers seem to have undergone brain transplantation in America, it is heartening to see that in the matter of delivering sermons they remain true to the hoary tradition of Indian Gurus.

Some Pre-Budget Predictions

Some Pre-Budget Predictions Ashok Rudra The elaborate ritual of pre-budget consultations undertaken every year can be taken seriously only by those who find it flattering to be consulted by the finance minister. The decisions that will actually be taken will be determined, if they have not been settled already, by politic .! compulsions and will not be influenced by advice Pre-budget advice, whether solicited or unsolicited, is therefore quite meaningless. Predictions as to what is going to happen may be of greater interest.

Privatisation and Deregulation

Privatisation and Deregulation Ashok Rudra The author advances two hypotheses and invites their refutation. First, the performance of any industry depends on various factors which do not all get determined by private or public ownership of the means of production. Second, 'abrupt removal of protection is likely to spell disaster for the economy; some amount of protection and regulation is absolutely essential for making industries competitive.

Industrial Retardation

[1959] Logic of Investment Planning, North Holland, Amsterdam.
[1961] Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities: A Review Article', Arthaniti, 4 (1-2).

Faces of Oppression

Faces of Oppression Ashok Rudra Of Women, Outcastes, Peasants, and Rebels: A Selection of Bengali Short Stories edited, translated and with an Introduction by Kalpana Bardhan; University of California Press, 1990.

How Do the Poor Survive

Nikhilesh Bhattacharya Prafulla Chakraborty Manabendu Chattopadhyay Ashok Rudra There is no doubt that a very large part of the Indian population is so poor as not to be able to procure the minimum nourishment. How then do these people continue to survive?

Where Is the Industrial Retardation

A careful review of the relevant data does not lend support to the hypotheses of industrial retardation and slowing down of public sector investment which have been subjects of so much discussion among Indian economists.

From Collective Capitalism to Private Capitalism-The Soviet Transition

From Collective Capitalism to Private Capitalism The Soviet Transition Ashok Rudra What is taking place in the Soviet Union is a transition from one kind of capitalism with collective possession of capital goods to a capitalism with individual ownership of the means of production. The granting of freedoms

Inequality, Educational Qualifications and Chance Factors

and Chance Factors Sukla Chatterjee Ashok Rudra Several aspects of inequality are overlooked when the entire population is lumped together ignoring all social and economic groups, classes and castes, professions and occupations. These may relate to differences in property holdings; in what may be called capability


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