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Export Growth Performance and Prospects

The accelerated export growth in the five years 1966-67 to 1970-71 was the result of a combination of factors: devaluation, the industrial recession which released supplies of iron and steel and engineering goods and the development and expansion of exports of certain new items.

Export Processing Zones Gains at the Margin

November 20, 1971 a string of well known public figures as the vice-chancellors of its university, there has been no attempt to collect funds for development by any other way than waiting for the UGC and the state government to dole out the money.

Expo 1970 A Japanese Fair

People's Republic has never been a member, but it was one of the Asian and African countries which had attended the historic first conference of these nations at Bandung. The starting point, then, should have been, surely, the participation of China in the Non- aligned Conference? The UN might conceivably have taken the stand of the non-aligned states on the question of China's admission more seriously had the Lusaka Conference opened its own doors to China.

Exports in the Fourth Plan, 1969-1974-Projections, Problems, and Possibilities

Projections, Problems, and Possibilities Angus Hone V K Saxena The Fourth Plan anticipates an increase of 40 per cent in exports, i e, a compound rate of growth of seven per cent per year over the five years, 1969-74.

Marketing Hand Tools in North America

Marketing Hand Tools in North America Trevor Griffiths Angus Hone THE Draft Fourth Plan (1969-1974) places considerable emphasis on the growth of non-traditional manufactured exports. Machinery, equipment and engineering product exports are projected to grow at 9,5 per cent per year from 1968/69-1980/81 to compensate for the slow growth of traditional exports.1 These exports will inevitably be concentrated in the developed country markets in North America and Western Europe. There is no reason to believe that these high rates of growth arc unattainable provided properly integrated marketing and manufacturing plans are established on a market-by- market and product-by-product basis. However, the record-breaking expans ion of engineering exports during 1967- 1969 was a response to the recession- and was made possible by the revamping of export incentives and a change in manufacturers' attitudes towards overseas selling in East African and West Asian markets. It must be emphasised that the patterns of selling in the developed country markets arc very different from those encountered in the markets that Indian manufacturers have exported to in the past. The problems of long-term market penetration must be considered. The questions of quality control, inspection and delivery dates are more important than many Indian exporters realise. The results of fragmented, low quality selling efforts are often damaging to India's reputation for quality and commercial probity. The solution to many of these problems would be for the relevant Ministries, the Indian Engineering Export Promotion Council, the leading export houses and certain manufacturers to mount a combined long-term marketing plan. The purpose of this note is to show how a long-term marketing plan could be adopted and implemented for the export of Indian handtools in North America, The combined United States and Canadian market for handtools has been estimated as somewhere around $400- 600 million per annum. Imports currently run at $ 40-60 million, principally from Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom in the quality range and larger quantities in the economy range from Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The market for Indian hand- tools has grown considerably:

For Teachers Only

Review of Management November 1968 the reaction of the target audience and the final results could have been quite different.
Media-wise the exclusion of film in this intra-media comparison appears somewhat surprising. The authors incidentally inform us that as many as 74 per cent in all six villages combined were found not to have seen any films. This may be largely became of the distance or accessibility factor. Dermanent cinemas being all situated THIS work is a largely unrevised memorandum submitted to the Education Commission which received evidence from 1964 to 1966. The memorandum was submitted in January 1966 and its value as a guide to India's educational future has been destroyed in a maelstrom of disastrous events; the devaluation of July 1966, the second successive poor monsoon and harvest in 1966-67 and, finally, the sharp fall in availability of non-project aid since the end of 1967, which is now likely to continue throughout the period of the revised Fourth Plan (1969-1974). The underlying assumptions of the education and manpower projections were based on the overall growth rates calculated in "Notes on Perspective of Development, India 1960-61 to 1975-76" and Pitambar Pant's 1965 revision and extension of these figures to 1986 in his Kale Memorial Lectures "Three Decades of Transition, India 1956-1986", Throughout the volume one searches in vain for the suggestion that the authors thought of testing the sensitivity of their assumptions to different overall growth rates (i e, 5 per cent 5.5 per cent, and 6.0 per cent a year). Did they really think in the autumn of 1965 that 6.6 per cent a year was the most likely growth rate for the Indian economy between 1960-61 and 1975-76? It is also disturbing that there is no justification at all of the choice of 20 years as the projection time period. The uncertainty of long-term planning in developing economies might have influenced the authors to limit their projection to 10 or 15 years. The authors do concede that "Estimates of economic growth over long periods are in the main town, But in the experience of commercial houses who have either used touring talkies or gone into village interiors with mobile vans, the film with its vivid combination of sound and sight has proved to be an extremely effective medium of communication, breaking as it does the barriers of literacy and language, of old habits and attitudes. In a serious painstaking study such as the authors have under- necessarily tentative, and it is hard to judge their implications for employment". In the event, all speculation concerning the empirical value of the projections has ceased a mere two and a half years after the memorandum was submitted. The Indian economy is extremely unlikely to grow at 6.6 per cent a year from 1960-61 to 1975-76 even if a persistent agricultural miracle manifests itself.

What Kind of Manpower Planning

However, besides its fiscally regressive nature, an impost on agricultural inputs would run counter to the dictates of agricultural development by inhibiting use of improved methods. Such a course would, in fact, take us back to the pre-1962 situation, on the argument that since incomes cannot be transferred from agriculture, income generation itself should be slowed down in that sector.

Tangled Wires of State Electricity Boards

Tangled Wires of State Electricity Boards Angus Hone INDIA had in 1950 an investment of Rs 190 crores in power, of which Rs 70 crores was in the public sector. The First Plan added Rs 292 crores (260), the Second Plan Rs 525 crores (460), and the Third Plan Rs 1262 crores (1012), (figures in parentheses are of public sector investment). These sums have not been well spent. There is no evidence that India will attain an efficiently planned and financially sound -electricity supply industry until the State Electricity Boards are radically restructured. This process will be resented by the politicians, but, given the curb that an inefficient high cost power supply could impose on Indian growth in the next twenty years, it may be thought that the national interest should prevail The costs of accepting a radical solution are political and short-term, the costs of refusing to reorganise the electricity supply industry are economic and long- term. Can India afford to continue with such financially and managerially ill-favoured organisations as the majority of State Electricity Boards are? To pose the question is to answer it.

High Absenteeism and High Commitment

Review of Management May, 1968 To conclude, it is recommended that :
1) A pre-investment analysis must be clearly related to all the objectives inherent in the operations of the unit, eg, social, economic, political and commercial objectives. Furthermore, such objectives should be quantified and the cost/benefit ratio worked out.

Unemployed Engineers

Unemployed Engineers Angus Hone THE admission capacity of engineering and technological institutions (degree and diploma levels) increased from 1965-66 ' This rapid increase followed

Economies of Improving Technical Education

Given the extreme shortage of engineers and skilled workers in 1947, the emphasis on massive expansion of facilities for technical education and training in the period 1955-66 was inevitable.


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